土木工程专业英语翻译

发布于:2021-11-29 04:32:05

a common way to construct steel truss and prestressed concrete cantilever spans is to counterbalance each cantilever arm with another cantilever arm projecting the opposite direction,forming a balanced cantilever. they attach to a solid foundation ,the counterbalancing arms are called anchor arms /thus,in a bridge built on two foundation piers,there are four cantilever arms ,two which span the obstacle,and two anchor arms which extend away from the obstacle,because of the need for more strength at the balanced cantilever's supports ,the bridge superstructure often takes the form of towers above the foundation piers .the commodore barry bridge is an example of this type of cantilever bridge

一种常见的方法构造钢桁架和预应力混凝土悬臂跨度是每一个悬臂抗衡预测相 反的方向臂悬臂,形成一个*衡的悬臂。他们重视了坚实的基础,制约武器被称 为锚武器/因此,在两个基础上建一座桥桥墩,有四个悬臂式武器,这两者之间 跨越的*土礁雒淦髂母鲅映ぞ嗬氲恼*蛭嗟脑*衡悬臂的支 持力量的需要, 桥梁上部结构往往表现为塔墩基础之上形成的准将巴里大桥是这 种类型的例子悬臂桥 steel truss cantilever support loads by tension of the upper members and compression of the lower ones .commonly ,the structure distributes teh tension via teh anchor arms to the outermost supports ,while the compression is carried to the foundation beneath teh central towers .many truss cantilever bridges use pinned joints and are therefore statically determinate with no members carrying mixed loads 钢桁架悬臂由上层成员和下层的紧张压缩支持负载。通常,结构分布通过锚武器 的最外层的支持紧张,而压缩抬到下方的中央塔的基础。桁架悬臂许多桥梁使用 固定的关节,是静定,没有携带混合负载的成员,因此 prestressed concrete balanced cantilever bridges are often built using segmental construction .some steel arch bridges are built using pure cantilever spans from each sides,with neither falsework below nor temporary supporting towers and cables above ,these are then joined with a pin,usually after forcing the union point apart ,and when jacks are removed and the bridge decking is added the bridge becomes a truss arch bridge .such unsupported construction is only possible where appropriate rock is available to support the tension in teh upper chord of the span during construction ,usually limiting this method to the spanning of narrow canyons
预应力混凝土*衡悬臂桥梁往往建立使用段施工。 一些钢拱桥是使用各方面的纯悬臂跨度既 无假工作下面也临时支撑塔和电缆上面,这些都是再加入了一根针,通常在迫使工会点外, 当插孔删除,并添加桥梁甲板桥成为桁架拱桥,这种不支持的建设,才可能在适当情况下的 岩石可用于支持在施工期间的跨度弦上的张力,通常限制这狭隘的峡谷跨越方法

an arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch .arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into a horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either side .a viaduct may be made from a series of arches ,although other more economical structures are typically used today
在拱桥桥台的桥梁,是一个在一个弧形拱状,每年年底。拱桥通过转移到由部分在两边的桥台水*推

力内敛的桥梁和其工作负载的重量。高架桥可能从做系列拱门,虽然其他更经济的结构通常用于今天

the corbel arch bridge is a masonry or stone bridge where each successively higher course cantilevers slightly more than the previous course .the steps of teh masonry may be trimmed to make the arch have a rounded shape .the corbel arch does not produce thrust ,or outward pressure at the bottom of the arch ,and is not considered a true arch ,it is more stable than a true arch because it does not have this thrust .the disadvantage is that this type of arch is not suitable for large spans 在牛腿拱桥是砖石或石桥当然,每个先后高悬臂比以前的课程等等。砌体的步骤 可能被修剪,使拱有一个圆形的牛腿拱不产生推力,或向外压在拱底部,不被视 为一个真正的牌坊,它比真正的拱稳定,因为它没有这种推力,其缺点是,这种 弓型不适合大跨度 in some loactions it is necessary to span a wide gap at a relatively high elevation ,such as when a canal or water supply must span a valley .rather than building extremely large arches ,or very tall supporting columns ,a series of arched structures are built one atop another ,with wider structure at the base .roman civil engineers developed teh design and constructed highly refined structures using only simple materials ,equipment ,and mathematics .this type is still used in canal viaducts and roadways as it has a pleasing shape .particularly when spanning water ,as the reflections of the arches form a visual impression of circles or ellipses 在某些位置,必须跨越一个相对较高的海拔悬殊,比如,当一个或供水管必须跨 越山谷。而不是建立非常大的拱门,或非常高的支持柱,拱形结构的一系列建 发达国家罗马土木工程师设计和建造高度 one 之上另一个在该基地的结构矛盾, 精炼的结构只使用简单的材料,设备和数学。这种类型采用的依然是运河高架桥 和道路,因为它有一个可喜的形状,尤其当跨越水,作为拱门反射形成圆形或椭 圆形的视觉印象 this type of bridge comprises an arch where the deck is completely above the arch .the area between the arch and the deck is known as teh spandrel .if the spandrel is solid ,usually the case in a masonry or stone arch bridge ,it is called a closed-spandrel arch bridge .if the deck is supported by a number of vertical columns rising from the arch ,it is known as an open-spandrel arch bridge .the Alexander HamiltonBridge is an example of an open-spandrel arch bridge
这种桥型拱其中包括在甲板上完全凌驾于拱的拱之间的甲板面积和拱肩是已知的, 如果拱肩 是固体,通常是在砖石或石拱桥的情况下,它被称为一个封闭拱肩拱桥,如果甲板是由从拱 上升的垂直列数的支持, 它被称为拱肩拱桥打开的亚历山大汉密尔顿大桥是一个开放式拱桥 拱肩例子

this type of bridge comprises an arch which supports the deck by means of suspension cables or tie bars .the Sydney Harbour Bridge is a through arch bridge which uses a truss type arch .these through arch bridges are in contrast to suspension bridges which use the catenary in tension to which the aforementioned cables or tie bars are attached and suspended

这种桥型包括哪些拱支持的甲板悬挂电缆或拉杆手段。 悉尼海港大桥是通过拱桥它采用了桁 架拱类型, 通过这些拱桥相对于接触网吊桥正在使用哪个其中在紧张上述电缆或拉杆连接和 悬浮

also known as a bowstring arch ,this type of arch bridge incorporates a tie between two opposite ends of the arch ,the tie is capable of withstanding the horizontal thrust forces which would normally be exerted on the abutments of an arch bridge
那么作为弓弦拱桥,拱桥采用这种之间的两个拱两端领带型,领带可以承受的水*推力,这 通常是对拱桥桥台的已知能够产生力量

4 Suspension Bridges A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders . This type of bridge dates from thr early 19th century , while bridges without vertical suspenders have a long history in many mountainous parts of the world .
4 悬索桥 悬索桥是的桥的甲板下面悬索挂垂直吊杆的类型。 这种类型的桥梁日期从苏氨酸早在 19 世纪, 同时 没有垂直吊杆的桥梁有悠久的历史,世界许多地区山区。

this types of bridge has cables suspended between towers , plus vertical suspender cables that carry the weight of the deck below , upon which traffic crosses . This arrangement allows the deck to be level or to arc upward for additional clearance . Like other suspension bridge types , this type often is constructed without falsework
这种类型的桥梁已暂停塔,再加上携带的哪些交通十字架后甲板以下,重量的垂直悬挂电缆之间的电缆。 这种安排允许在甲板上将水*或向上弧办理其他手续。像其他悬索桥的类型,此类型通常被构建无支架

the suspension cables must be anchored at each end of the bridge , since any load appiled to the bridge is transformed into a tension in these main cables . The main cables continue beyond the pilares to deck-level supports ,and furture continue to connections with anchors in the ground . the roadway is supported by vertical suspender cables or roads ,called hangers . In some circumstances the towers may sit on a bluff or canyon edge where the road may proceed directly to the main span , otherwise the bridge will usually have two smaller spans , running between either pair of pillars and the highway , which may be supported by suspender cables or may use a truss bridge to make this connection . In the latter case there will be very little are in the outboard main cables .
悬索必须固定两端的桥,因为任何负载应用到桥变成这些主缆线的紧张局势。主缆线继续超越皮拉雷斯到 甲板级支持,并继续与地面中的锚点连接的未来。巷道受支持垂直悬挂电缆或道路,称为衣架。在某些情 况下可能会坐在塔的一个悬崖或路讯直接向主跨峡谷边缘,否则这座桥将通常有两个较小的跨度,要么对 支柱和公路,可能受吊杆电缆或可以使用这个连接的桁架桥之间运行。在后一种情况会有很少的舷外的主 缆线是。

The main forces in a suspension bridge of any type are tension in the cables and compression in the pillars . Since almost all the force on the pillars is vertically downwards and they are also stabilized by the main cable , the pillars can be made quite slender , as on the Severn Bridge , near Bristol ,England . In a suspended deck bridge ,cables suspended via towers hold up the road deck . The weight is transferred by the cables to the towers , which in turn transfer the weight to the ground
张力缆线和支柱压缩的任何类型悬索桥的主要力量。由于几乎所有的支柱力量是垂直向下,他们也稳定着 主要电缆,作为勋桥支柱可很细长,英国布里斯托尔附*。电缆塔通过暂停中悬浮的桥面,举起了公路桥 面。重量由电缆传输到反过来移转重量到地面高塔,

Assuming a negligible weight as compared to the deck and vehicles being supported , the main cables of a suspension bridge will form a parabola . One can see the shape from tje constant increase of the gradient of the cable with liner distance , this increase in gradient at each connection with the deck providing a net upward support force . Combined with the relatively simple constraints placed upon the actual deck , this makes the suspension bridge much simple to design and analyze than a cable-stayed bridge , where the deck is in compression .
假设可以忽略不计的重量为甲板和车辆被支持,悬索桥主缆将形成一条抛物线。人们可以看到从起跑不断 增加的衬距线的渐变,这增加的梯度与提供净的向上支撑力在甲板上的每个连接的形状。结合实际的上甲 板相对简单的限制,这使得悬索桥斜拉桥主梁,在甲板上哪里去压缩比分析与设计更简单。

The suspension bridge has some advantages over other bridge types: 1 longer main spans are achievable than with any other typesof bridges 2 less material may be required than other bridge types , even at spans they can achieve , leading to a reduced construction cost 3 except for installation of the intial temporary cables , little or no access from below is required during construction , for example allowing a waterway to remain open shile the bridge is built above 4 may be better able to withstand earthquake movements than can heavier and more rigid bridges
悬索桥在其他桥类型的一些优点: 1 长的主跨度是可实现比与任何其他类型的桥梁 更少的材料 2 可能需要比其他桥类型,即使在他们可以实现,跨度导致降低施工成本 在施工期间,除了对初值的临时电缆,从下面很少或没有访问安装 3 是必需的例如允许继续开放施乐航道 桥上面生成 4 可能能够更好地抵御地震运动不是可以更重、 更严格的桥梁

. However , the suspension bridge has some disadvantages either compared with other bridge types 1 Considerable stiffness or aerodynamic profiling may be required to prevent the bridge deck vibrating under high winds 2 the relatively low deck stiffness compared to other (non-suspension) types of bridges makes it

more difficult to carry heavy rail traffic where high concentrated live loads occur 3 some access below may be required during construction , to lift the intial cables or to lift deck units . This access can often be avoided in cable-stayed bridge construction
悬索桥但是,有一些缺点,要么相比其他桥类型 1 个相当大的刚度或气动性能分析可能需要防止桥面振动下高风 2 其他 (非暂停) 类型的桥梁相比的相对较低的甲板刚度更难以进行重轨交通高浓度活荷载发生 施工升降机的初值的电缆或提起甲板单位,可能需要一些访问下面 3。这种访问通常可以避免在斜拉桥施 工

5 Cable-stayed Bridges A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns , with cables supporting the bridge deck . There are two major class of cable-stayed bridges : In a harp design , the cables are made nearly parallel by attaching cables to various points on the tower so that the height of attachment of each cable on the tower is similar to the distance from the tower along the roadway to its lower attachment . In a fan design , the cables all connect to pass over the top of the towers . 5 斜拉桥 斜拉桥是包含一个或多个列,用电缆支撑桥面的桥梁。有两个大类的斜拉桥结构: 在竖琴设计中,电缆由 *乎*行塔上的各点连接电缆,因此,附件的每条电缆塔的高度是类似于距离从塔沿空留巷对其较低的附 件。在风扇设计中,所有的电缆连接到传递塔的上方。

Compared with other bridge types ,the cable-stayed is optimal for spans longer than typically seen in cantilever bridges and shorter than those typically requiring a suspension bridge . This is the range in which cantilever spans would rapidly grow heavier if they were lengthened , and in which suspension cabling does not get more economical were the span to be shortened. 相比其他桥类型,斜拉桥是最优的跨度比通常看到悬臂桥梁长和短于那些通常需要悬索桥。这是悬臂梁跨 度将会迅速成长较重的如果他们被加长的范围,在哪个悬浮缆线连接不会获得更多经济被缩短的跨度

A multiple-tower cable-stayed bridge may appear similar to a suspension bridge , but in fact is very different in principle and in the method of construction , In the suspension bridge , a large cable is made up by "spinning" small diamter wires bewteen two towers , and at each end to anchorages into the ground or to a massive structure . These cables form the primary load-bearing structure for the bridge deck . Before the deck is installed , the cables are under tension from only their own weight . Smaller cables or roads are then suspended from the main cable , and used to support the load of the bridge deck ,which is lifted in sections and attached to the suspender cables . As this is done the tension inthe cables increases, as it does with the live load of vehicles or persons crossing the bridge . T he tension on the cables must be transferred to the earth by the anchorages , which are sometimes difficult to construct due to poor soil condition.
多塔斜拉桥结构可能会出现类似的吊桥,但事实上是非常不同的原则和方法的悬索桥建设、 大型电缆组成 的"旋转"小径线的距离两个塔,和每个月底入地碇泊处或大规模的结构。这些缆线形成的主桥承载结构。 在甲板*沧爸埃缋抡诮粽胖皇撬亲陨淼闹亓俊=闲〉牡缋禄虻缆啡缓笤萃4又鞯缋拢⒂糜谥

持的负载,并取消各节中的吊杆电缆相连的桥面。因为这是张力在电缆的增加,因为它符合活载的车辆或 过桥的人。T 他张力电缆必须转入地球的碇泊区,有时难以应付贫瘠的土壤条件构建的。

In the cable-stayed bridge , the towers form the primary load-bearing structure .A cantilever approach is often used for support of the bridge deck near the towers , but ares furture from them are supported by cables runing diectly to the towers. This has the disadvantage , compared with the suspension bridge ,that the cables pullto the sides as opposed to diectly up, requiring the bridge deck to be stronger to resist the resulting horizontal compression loads ;but has the advantage of not requiring firm anchorages to resist a horizontal pull of the cables , as in the suspension bridge . All static horizontal forces are balanced so that the supporting tower does not teng to tilt or slide , needing only to resist such forces from the live loads 塔斜拉桥,形成主承力结构。悬臂方法通常用于从他们未来支持的电缆运行紧跟在对塔附*塔,但战神桥 面的支持。这样做的弊端,相比悬索桥,电缆负值,紧跟在相对于双方要求要坚强些抵制产生水*压缩桥 面加载 ; 但不是要求抵制的缆线,如在悬索桥横向拉动坚定碇泊区的优势。所有静态水*力的*衡,以 便支持塔不会不倾斜或幻灯片,只需要抵制这种势力的活荷载的滕

key advantages of the cable-stayed form are as follows 1 much greater stiffness than the suspension bridge , so that deformations od the deck under live loads are reduced 2can be constructed by cantilevering out from the tower ; and the cables act both as temporary and permanent supports to the bridge deck 3 for a symmetrical bridge , the horizontal forces balance and large ground anchorages arer not required
斜拉桥窗体的主要优点如下: 1 更大刚度比悬索桥,以便变形敖活荷载作用下的甲板减少 2can 拟建的悬挑出从塔 ;和电缆行事,临时和长期的支持,在桥面 对称桥 3,水*力量*衡和不需要的地面大碇泊区所做

A further advantage of the cable-stayed bridge is that any number of towers may be used .This bridge form can be as easily built with a singer tower , as with a pair of towers . However , a suspension bridge is ususally built only with a pair of towers .
斜拉桥的另一个优点是可以使用任意数量的塔。此桥的窗体可以与一对塔一样轻松地建立歌手塔。但是, 仅有一对塔建六点钟悬索桥。

6 Truss Bridges a truss bridge is a bridge composed of connected elements which may be stressed from tension , compression , or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads . Truss bridges are one of the oldest

types of modern bridges , A truss bridge is economical to construct owing to its efficient use of materials.
6 钢桁桥 桁架桥是一座桥,连接可能会强调从紧张、 压缩,或有时两者都动荷载响应的元素组成。钢桁桥是最古老 的现代桥梁类型之一,桁架桥是兴建,其有效地利用材料由于经济。

Truss girders , lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems , since the members experience essentially axial forces and hence the material is fully utilized . Members of the truss girder bridges can be classified as chord members and web members . Generally , the chord members resist overall bending moment in form of direct tension and compression and web members carry the shear force in the form of direct tension or compression . Due to their efficiency . truss bridges are built over wide range of spana . Truss bridges compete against plate girders for shorter spans , against box girders for medium spans and cable-stayed bridges for long spans ,
桁架梁、 格梁或打开 web 梁是高效、 经济的结构体系,因为成员经验基本上轴向力,因此这种材料充 分的利用。桁梁桥的成员可归类为弦委员和 web。一般情况下,弦成员抵制整体弯曲力矩的形式直接拉伸 和压缩和 web 成员进行的直接拉伸或压缩形式的剪力。由于对他们的工作效率。拥有广泛的什帕尼亚建 钢桁桥。钢桁桥板梁的较短的范围,对中等跨度箱梁斜拉桥结构的大跨度的竞争

For short and medium spans it is economical to use parallel chord trusses such as warren truss ,Pratt truss , Howe truss ,etc.to minimize fabrication and erection costs. Especially for shorter spans tne Warren truss is more economical as it requires less material than either the Pratt or Howe trusses . However, for longer spans ,a greater depth is required at the centre and variable depth trusses are adopted for economy .In case of truss bridges that are continuous over many supports ,the depth of the truss is usually larger at the supports and smaller at mid-span
它是使用经济的短期和中期跨如沃伦、 普惠桁架、 豪桁、 一整套的*行弦杆桁架制作及安装成本最小化。 尤其是对于短跨: 沃伦是更经济,因为它需要比的普惠或豪桁架的资料较少。然而,更长时间的跨度,更 大的深度是需要在中心和可变深度桁架通过经济。情况下在许多支持连续钢桁桥、 桁架的深度通常在支持 较大和较小,在撞击


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